The universe is a string-net liquid (article New Scientist 15 March 2007)
Mar 16, 2007 05:53 PM
The following article shows how reductive science may be gradually
approaching (from the outside in or top down) and merging with the ABC theory* of
cosmogenesis that (from the inside out or bottom up) proposes a descending harmonic
series of fractally involving, coadunate but not consubstantial (i.e.,
enfolded inside each other at different orders or phases of
frequency/mass/energy/density) electrodynamic fields -- originating from an initial one dimensional ray
or string of G-force radiated from the spinergy, or positive (CW) and
negative (CCW) angular momentum (potential matter) globally encircling the empty and
inert zero point (potential consciousness) in the "singularity" of the
Absolute, mother or Ground Space at the primal beginning (i.e., Big Bang).**
This ray or string of pure energy of G-space in motion (root of gravity)
radiating spirally and vortically outward in opposite directions, continually
expands and cyclically weaves the "string-nets" or membranes of the fractally
involved spherical fields within fields within fields, at decreasing orders of
frequency-energy-density, until, at the fourth fractal iteration, our visible
configuration space-time appears everywhere at once ... With it's fundamental
particles, after the breaking of symmetry, being formed at the ends of the higher
frequency-energy micro-particle strings of the previous higher order field it
fractally involved from. This may account for the way the quantum
particles, which are simply standing waves of space in motion are continually fed
through the six cyclic hyperspace field forces enfolded, like bubbles within
bubbles (quantum foam), in the vacuum (Planck space) between the particles and the
Thus, as the zero-points fill the entire spherical space-time on each fractal
level and are forever fluidly entangled with each other, they appear as if
they were still the original zero-point spinergy of primal beginning, and act as
a continuous fluid of varying degrees or layers of density -- much like a
Bose-Einstein condensate, wherein separate particles merge together and act as if
they were one particle -- which is analogous to the separate but continuously
interlinked atoms, ions, and molecules of water that, as one incompressible
yet flexible and fluid object, can take the shape of anything that encloses it.
This fourth fractal iteration is the stage of involution where, apparently,
the deductively arrived at ABC fields become the inductively reasoned and
determined string-net liquid described below, and predicts how the initial 3
iterations of 14 coadunate but not consubstantial hyperspace fields, within the
Planck space between the quantum particles and the zero point spinergy of absolute
or primal non dimensional space, are the efficient cause of those fundamental
particles of both positive (light) and negative (dark) matter-energy that
fills this entire continually expanding space-time continuum.
After eons of evolution, from galaxies, through stars, planets, sentient and
ultimately thinking beings -- eventually, as entropy exhausts itself, all
particles will decay back to their entangled zero-point spinergy's and the entire
universe will eventually revert to its completely homogeneous primal state or
"singularity," as the ultimate condensate.... To repeat again, after an equal
period of rest in eternal duration at absolute zero linear time and motion,
another Big Bang beginning cycle of manifestation -- although with different,
more advanced forms of conscious beings beyond our furthest imagination -- based
on the knowledge and information gained in its past manifest period. This
cycle of universal manifestation and rest is analogous to the similar cycles of
each individual mentally conscious beings in it that went through their own
cycles of manifestation and rest, waking sleeping, birth death. Thus, laying
the basis for the possibility of both karma and reincarnation -- as taught in
all Eastern philosophical schools and the religions based on them, along with
their mystically interpreted metaphysics and theologies, designed in their
early antiquity to satisfy the basically illiterate or uninitiated masses.
To envision all this in all its simple beauty of complex patterns of
coenergetic harmonic resonance's that fractally and cyclically, through the fluidity
of all the descending coenergetic fields, create all the myriad symmetrical
forms, radiant images of light and sounds of nature, as well as their
interpretation and expression through mankind's creative thought -- takes an immense leap
of the imagination -- which, as Einstein said, ". . . is more important than
(If any of the above is not understood, or needs clarification, please feel
free to ask specific questions.)
*ABC Home Page
**How It All Began
The universe is a string-net liquid - fundamentals - 15 March 2007 - New
The universe is a string-net liquid
In 1998, just after he won a share of the Nobel prize for physics, Robert
Laughlin of Stanford University in California was asked how his discovery of
"particles" with fractional charge, now called quasi-particles, would affect the
lives of ordinary people. "It probably won't," he said, "unless people are
concerned about how the universe works."
Well, people were. Xiao-Gang Wen at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
and Michael Levin at Harvard University ran with Laughlin's ideas and have
come up with a prediction for a new state of matter, and even a tantalising
picture of the nature of space-time itself. Levin presented their work at the
Topological Quantum Computing conference at the University of California, Los
Angeles, early this month.
The first hint that a new type of matter may exist came in 1983. "Twenty five
years ago we thought we understood everything about how matter changes
phase," says Wen. "Then along came an experiment that opened up a whole new world."
In the experiment, electrons moving in the interface between two
semiconductors behaved as though they were made up of particles with only a fraction of
the electron's charge. This so-called fractional quantum hall effect (FQHE)
suggested that electrons may not be elementary particles after all. However, it
soon became clear that electrons under certain conditions can congregate in a
way that gives them the illusion of having fractional charge - an explanation
that earned Laughlin, Horst Störmer and Daniel Tsui the Nobel prize (New
Scientist, 31 January 1998, p 36).
Wen suspected that the effect could be an example of a new type of matter.
Different phases of matter are characterised by the way their atoms are
organised. In a liquid, for instance, atoms are randomly distributed, whereas atoms in
a solid are rigidly positioned in a lattice. FQHE systems are different. "If
you take a snapshot of the position of electrons in an FQHE system they appear
random and you think you have a liquid," says Wen. But step back, and you see
that, unlike in a liquid, the electrons dance around each other in
“The position of the electrons in this material appears random like in a
liquid, but they also move in well-defined steps”
It is as if the electrons are entangled. Today, physicists use the term to
describe a property in quantum mechanics in which particles can be linked
despite being separated by great distances. Wen speculated that FQHE systems
represented a state of matter in which entanglement was an intrinsic property, with
particles tied to each other in a complicated manner across the entire
This led Wen and Levin to the idea that there may be a different way of
thinking about matter. What if electrons were not really elementary, but were
formed at the ends of long "strings" of other, fundamental particles? They
formulated a model in which such strings are free to move "like noodles in a soup" and
weave together into huge "string-nets".
“What if electrons were not elementary, but were formed at the ends of long
strings of other, fundamental particles?”
Light and matter unified
The pair ran simulations to see if their string-nets could give rise to
conventional particles and fractionally charged quasi-particles. They did. They
also found something even more surprising. As the net of strings vibrated, it
produced a wave that behaved according to a very familiar set of laws - Maxwell's
equations, which describe the behaviour of light. "A hundred and fifty years
after Maxwell wrote them down, here they emerged by accident," says Wen.
That wasn't all. They found that their model naturally gave rise to other
elementary particles, such as quarks, which make up protons and neutrons, and the
particles responsible for some of the fundamental forces, such as gluons and
the W and Z bosons.
>From this, the researchers made another leap. Could the entire universe be
modelled in a similar way? "Suddenly we realised, maybe the vacuum of our whole
universe is a string-net liquid," says Wen. "It would provide a unified
explanation of how both light and matter arise." So in their theory elementary
particles are not the fundamental building blocks of matter. Instead, they emerge
from the deeper structure of the non-empty vacuum of space-time.
"Wen and Levin's theory is really beautiful stuff," says Michael Freedman,
1986 winner of the Fields medal, the highest prize in mathematics, and a quantum
computing specialist at Microsoft Station Q at the University of California,
Santa Barbara. "I admire their approach, which is to be suspicious of anything
- electrons, photons, Maxwell's equations - that everyone else accepts as
Other theories that try to explain the same phenomena abound, of course; Wen
and Levin realise that the burden of proof is on them. It may not be far off.
Their model predicts specific arrangements of atoms in the new state of
matter, which they dub the "string-net liquid", and Joel Helton's group at MIT might
have found it.
Helton was aware of Wen's work and decided to look for such materials.
Trawling through geology journals, his team spotted a candidate - a dark green
crystal that geologists stumbled across in the mountains of Chile in 1972. "The
geologists named it after a mineralogist they really admired, Herbert Smith,
labelled it and put it to one side," says team member Young Lee. "They didn't
realise the potential herbertsmithite would have for physicists years later."
Herbertsmithite (pictured) is unusual because its electrons are arranged in a
triangular lattice. Normally, electrons prefer to line up so that their spins
are in the opposite direction to that of their immediate neighbours, but in a
triangle this is impossible - there will always be neighbouring electrons
spinning in the same direction. Wen and Levin's model shows that such a system
would be a string-net liquid.
Although herbertsmithite exists in nature, the mineral contains impurities
that disrupt any string-net signatures, says Lee. So Helton's team made a pure
sample in the lab. "It was painstaking," says Lee. "It took us a full year to
prepare it and another year to analyse it."
The team measured the degree of magnetisation in the material, in response to
an applied magnetic field. If herbertsmithite behaves like ordinary matter,
they argue, then below about 26 °C the spins of its electrons should stop
fluctuating - a condition called magnetic order. But the team found no such
transition, even down to just a fraction above absolute zero.
They measured other properties, too, such as heat conduction. In conventional
solids, the relationship between their temperature and their ability to
conduct heat changes below a certain temperature, because the structure of the
material changes. The team found no sign of such a transition in herbertsmithite,
suggesting that, unlike other types of matter, its lowest energy state has no
discernible order. "We could have created something in the lab that nobody has
seen before," says Lee.
The team plans further tests to visualise the position of individual
electrons, looking for long-range entanglement by firing neutrons at the crystal and
observing how they scatter. "We want to see the dynamics of the spin," says
Lee. "If we tweak one [electron], we can see how the others are affected."
This intrigues Paul Fendley, a quantum computing specialist at the University
of Virginia, Charlottesville (see "Silicon for a quantum age"). "It's
reasonable to hope that we are seeing something exotic here," he says. "People are
getting very excited about this."
Even if herbertsmithite is not a new state of matter, we shouldn't be
surprised if one is found soon, as many teams are hunting for them, says Freedman. He
says people wrongly assume that particle accelerators are the only places
where big discoveries about matter can be made. "Accelerators are just recreating
conditions after the big bang and repeating experiments that are old hat for
the universe," he says. "But in labs people are creating [conditions] that are
colder than anywhere that has ever existed in the universe. We are bound to
stumble on something the universe has never seen before."
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