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Re:[Spam] Re: Theos-World Rousseau's Technology

Apr 23, 2006 06:56 AM
by carlosaveline


Cass, 

It depends.

If you state your expectation about change, perhaps I can risk an answer. 

Change evaluations always depend of change expectations, and change expectations must be stated in terms of their space and time dimensions. 

Carlos. 

De:theos-talk@yahoogroups.com

Para:theos-talk@yahoogroups.com

Cpia:

Data:Sun, 23 Apr 2006 04:24:48 -0700 (PDT)

Assunto:[Spam] Re: Theos-World Rousseau's Technology

> So what's changed?
> Cass
> 
> carlosaveline wrote: 
> Dear Friends, 
> 
> Thanks (see below). 
> 
> Jean-Jacques Rousseau, in his 1751 "Discourse on the Sciences and Arts", shows that the development of technical and intellectual skills, without the development of wisdom/goodness, is less than useless to the progress of humanity. 
> 
> He discusses WHAT DO WE DO WITH OUR KNOWLEDGE, and then comes back to ancient Athens for ethical inspiration and social consciousness. 
> 
> Nowadays, we have, like in the 18th century a great intellectual expansion with an equally great expansion of violence, wars, corruption, social injustice and environmental destruction. 
> 
> In the theosophical movement, very synchronistically, we have a lot of people thinking that Theosophy has nothing to do with Ethics! 
> 
> Yet good wheather always succeeds tempests/storms and we can prepare better times in small scale by our actions. 
> 
> 
> Best regards, Carlos. 
> 
> 
> 
> De:theos-talk@yahoogroups.com
> 
> Para:theos-talk@yahoogroups.com
> 
> C�pia:
> 
> Data:Sat, 22 Apr 2006 00:34:23 -0700 (PDT)
> 
> Assunto:[Spam] Re: Theos-World Re: While we debate the past
> 
> > Technology is a result of intellectual evolution. In itself it is neither good or bad, a product if you like. Unfortunately man has not evolved morally to ensure that it is only used for the improvement of humanity. I cannot see this happening until our morality evolves at the same rate as our intellectuality. Sad, but true, I fear.
> > Cass
> > 
> > Vincent wrote: Technological advancement is reflective of human evolution. There 
> > is a direct correlation between intellect and ballistic efficiency.
> > 
> > Blessings
> > 
> > Vince
> > 
> > --- In theos-talk@yahoogroups.com, Cass Silva wrote:
> > >
> > > Thought you might all find this interesting.Cass
> > > 
> > > 
> > > Estimated worldwide nuclear stockpiles The following is a list of 
> > nations that have admitted the possession of nuclear weapons, the 
> > approximate number of warheads under their control in 2002, and the 
> > year they tested their first weapon. This list is informally known 
> > in global politics as the "Nuclear Club". Note that with the 
> > exception of Russia and the United States (which have subjected 
> > their nuclear forces to independent verification under various 
> > treaties) these figures are estimates, in some cases quite 
> > unreliable estimates. Also, these figures represent total warheads 
> > possessed, rather than deployed. In particular, under the SORT 
> > treaty thousands of Russian and US nuclear warheads are in inactive 
> > stockpiles awaiting processing. The contained radioactive fuel can 
> > then be recycled for use in nuclear reactors that drive nuclear 
> > power plants and some military submarines and warships.
> > > From a high of 65,000 active weapons in 1985, there were about 
> > 20,000 active nuclear weapons in the world in 2002. Many of 
> > the "decommissioned" weapons were simply stored or partially 
> > dismantled, not destroyed.[1]
> > > 
> > > World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by 
> > color. Red: Five "nuclear weapons states" from the NPT. Dark orange: 
> > Other known nuclear powers. Yellow: States suspected of having 
> > possession of, or suspected of being in the process of developing, 
> > nuclear weapons and/or nuclear programs. Purple: States which at one 
> > point had nuclear weapons and/or nuclear weapons research programs. 
> > Green: Other states capable of developing nuclear weapons within 
> > several years if the decision to do so were made.
> > > 
> > > 
> > > Declared nuclear weapons states Country Warheads active/total* 
> > Year of first test United States 5,735/9,960[2] 1945 
> > ("Trinity") Russia (formerly the Soviet Union) 5,830/16,000[3] 
> > 1949 ("RDS-1") United Kingdom <200[4] 1952 ("Hurricane") 
> > France 350[5] 1960 ("Gerboise Bleue") People's Republic of China 
> > 400[6] 1964 ("596") India 40-50[7] 1974 ("Smiling Buddha") 
> > Pakistan 24-48[8] 1998 ("Chagai-I") North Korea 0-10[9] none
> > [10] *All numbers are estimates from the Natural Resources Defense 
> > Council, published in the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, unless 
> > other references are given. If differences between active and total 
> > stockpile are known, they are given as two figures separated by a 
> > forward slash. If no specifics are known, only one figure is given. 
> > Stockpile number may not contain all intact warheads if a 
> > substantial amount of warheads are scheduled for but have not yet 
> > gone through dismantlement; not all "active" warheads are deployed 
> > at any
> > > given time. When a spread of weapons is given (e.g., 0-10), it 
> > generally indicates that the estimate is being made on the amount of 
> > fissile material which has likely been produced, and the amount of 
> > fissile material needed per warhead depends on estimates of a 
> > country's proficiency at nuclear weapon design.
> > > [edit]
> > > 
> > > States that have tested a nuclear weapon 
> > > An early stage in the "Trinity" fireball.
> > > 
> > > 
> > > 
> > > The United States developed the first atomic weapons during 
> > World War II out of the fear that Nazi Germany would first develop 
> > them. It tested its first nuclear weapon in 1945 ("Trinity"), and 
> > remains the only country to have used nuclear weapons against 
> > another nation, during the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 
> > (see: Manhattan Project). It was the first nation to develop the 
> > hydrogen bomb, testing it ("Ivy Mike") in 1952 and a deployable 
> > version in 1954 ("Castle Bravo").
> > > The USSR tested its first nuclear weapon ("Joe-1") in 1949, in 
> > a crash project developed partially with espionage obtained during 
> > and after World War II (see: Soviet atomic bomb project). The direct 
> > motivation for their weapons development was the development of a 
> > balance of power during the Cold War. It tested a primitive hydrogen 
> > bomb in 1953 ("Joe-4") and a megaton-range hydrogen bomb in 1955 
> > ("RDS-37"). After its dissolution in 1991, its weapons entered 
> > officially into the possession of Russia.
> > > The United Kingdom tested its first nuclear weapon 
> > ("Hurricane") in 1952, drawing largely on data gained while 
> > collaborating with the United States during the Manhattan Project. 
> > Its program was motivated to have an independent deterrence against 
> > the USSR, while also remaining relevant in Cold War Europe. It 
> > tested its first hydrogen bomb in 1957.
> > > France tested its first nuclear weapon in 1960, also as an 
> > independent deterrence and to retain perceived Cold War relevance 
> > (see: Force de frappe). It tested its first hydrogen bomb in 1968.
> > > The People's Republic of China tested its first nuclear 
> > weapon in 1964, much to the surprise of Western intelligence 
> > agencies. It had long sought assistance in becoming a nuclear power 
> > from an uneasy USSR, but assistance stopped after the Sino-Soviet 
> > split and the weapon was developed as a deterrent against both the 
> > USA and the USSR. It tested its first hydrogen bomb in 1967 at Lop 
> > Nur. The country is currently thought to have had a stockpile of 400 
> > warheads since the early 1980s, though with considerably fewer than 
> > this actually deployed.[11]
> > > 
> > > An Indian Agni-II intermediate range ballistic missile displayed 
> > at the Republic Day Parade 2004. (Photo: Antônio Milena/ABr)
> > > 
> > > 
> > > 
> > > India tested a "peaceful nuclear device", as it was described 
> > by Indian government, in 1974 ("Smiling Buddha"), the first test 
> > developed after the creation of the NPT, and created new questions 
> > about how civilian nuclear technology could be diverted secretly to 
> > weapons purposes (dual-use technology). It appears to have been 
> > primarily motivated as a deterrent against China. It tested 
> > weaponized nuclear warheads in 1998 ("Operation Shakti"), including 
> > a hydrogen bomb (though the yield of this device is debated with 
> > some speculation that the secondary fusion stage failed to ignite). 
> > In July 2005, it was officially recognized by the United States as 
> > a "responsible nuclear" state and agreed to full nuclear cooperation 
> > between the two nations. This is seen as an "official" entry into 
> > the nuclear club of the above nations.
> > > Pakistan covertly developed its nuclear weapons over many 
> > decades with active Chinese assistance, beginning in the late 1970s. 
> > It is contended that Pakistan began its nuclear development programs 
> > in response to India's nuclear device. It is unknown when Pakistan 
> > began its nuclear development projects, but by the 1980s it was 
> > suspected of having successfully developed nuclear warheads. 
> > However, this was to remain speculative until 1998 when Pakistan 
> > conducted its first nuclear tests at the Chaghaii hills, a few days 
> > after India conducted its own tests.
> > > [edit]
> > > 
> > > Suspected nuclear states Countries believed to have at least one 
> > nuclear weapon, or programs with a realistic chance of producing a 
> > nuclear weapon in the near future:
> > > 
> > > On October 5, 1986, the British newspaper The Sunday Times ran 
> > Mordechai Vanunu's story on its front page under the 
> > headline: "Revealed �" the secrets of Israel's nuclear arsenal."
> > > 
> > > 
> > > 
> > > Israel - Israel is not a member of the Nuclear Non-
> > Proliferation Treaty and refuses to officially confirm or deny 
> > having a nuclear arsenal, or to having developed nuclear weapons, or 
> > even to having a nuclear weapons program. Although Israel claims 
> > that Dimona is a "research reactor," no scientific reports based on 
> > work done there have ever been published. Extensive information 
> > about the program in Dimona was also disclosed by technician 
> > Mordechai Vanunu in 1986. Imagery analysts can identify weapon 
> > bunkers, mobile missile launchers, and launch sites in satellite 
> > photographs. It is believed to possess nuclear weapons by the 
> > International Atomic Energy Agency. Israel may have tested a nuclear 
> > weapon along with South Africa in 1979 (see Vela Incident). 
> > According to the Natural Resources Defense Council and the 
> > Federation of American Scientists, they may possess 300-400 weapons, 
> > a figure which would put them above the median in the declared list.
> > [12]
> > > North Korea - On January 10, 2003 North Korea withdrew from 
> > the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. In February 2005 they claimed 
> > to possess functional nuclear weapons, though their lack of a test 
> > has led many experts to question whether or not they have a working 
> > weapon.
> > > [edit]
> > > 
> > > States suspected of having clandestine nuclear programs The 
> > question of whether individual states without nuclear weapons are 
> > trying to develop them is often a controversial one. Accusations of 
> > clandestine nuclear programs are often vehemently denied, and may be 
> > politically motivated themselves, or simply erroneous. Below are 
> > countries who have been accused by a number of governments and 
> > intergovernmental agencies as currently attempting to develop 
> > nuclear weapons technology who are not suspected as yet having 
> > developed it.
> > > 
> > > At the Uraniums Conversion Facility in Isfahan, Iran, yellowcake 
> > is converted into uranium hexafluoride as part of Iran's nuclear 
> > fuel cycle, which has been alleged to be part of a clandestine 
> > attempt to develop nuclear weapons.
> > > 
> > > 
> > > 
> > > Iran - Iran signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and 
> > says its interest in nuclear technology, including enrichment, was 
> > for civilian purposes only (a right guaranteed under the treaty), 
> > but the CIA and many other western countries suspect that this may 
> > be a cover for a nuclear weapons program, claiming that Iran has 
> > little need to develop nuclear power domestically and that it has 
> > consistently chosen nuclear options which were dual-use technology 
> > rather than those which could only be used for power generation.[13] 
> > The Iranian Foreign Minister Kamal Kharrazi stated on the intentions 
> > of his country's nuclear ambitions: "Iran will develop nuclear power 
> > abilities and this have to be recognized by the treaties."[14] As of 
> > February 4, 2006, the International Atomic Energy Agency referred 
> > Iran to the United Nations Security Council in response to Western 
> > concerns on their possible nuclear programs. On April 11, 2006, 
> > Iran's president announced that the country had
> > > successfully enriched uranium to reactor-grade levels for the 
> > first time.
> > > [edit]
> > > 
> > > States formerly possessing nuclear weapons Nuclear weapons have 
> > been present in many nations, often as staging grounds under control 
> > of other powers. However, in only a few instances have nations given 
> > up nuclear weapons after being in control of them; in most cases 
> > this has been because of special political circumstances. The fall 
> > of the USSR, for example, left many former Soviet-bloc countries in 
> > possession of nuclear weapons.
> > > 
> > > Ukraine - signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Ukraine 
> > inherited about 5,000 nuclear weapons when it became independent 
> > from the USSR in 1991, making its nuclear arsenal the third-largest 
> > in the world.[15] By 1996, Ukraine had voluntarily disposed of all 
> > nuclear weapons within its territory, transferring them to Russia.
> > [16]
> > > Belarus �" Belarus had 81 single warhead missiles stationed 
> > in their territory after the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991. They 
> > were all returned to Russia by 1996. Belarus signed the Nuclear Non-
> > Proliferation Treaty.[17]
> > > Kazakhstan �" Kazakhstan inherited 1,400 nuclear weapons from 
> > Soviet Union, returned them all to Russia by 1995. Signed the 
> > Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.[18]
> > > South Africa �" Produced six nuclear weapons in the 1980s but 
> > disassembled them in the early 1990s, and is thus the only nation 
> > known to have willingly given up nuclear status after developing 
> > their own weapons. Possibly tested a low yield device in 1979, 
> > perhaps with Israel, over the southern oceans in the Vela Incident. 
> > Signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.[19]
> > > [edit]
> > > 
> > > States formerly possessing nuclear programs These are nations 
> > known to have initiated serious nuclear weapons programs, with 
> > varying degrees of success. All of them are now regarded as 
> > currently no longer actively developing, or possessing, nuclear 
> > arms. All of the listed countries (or their descendants) signed the 
> > Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
> > > 
> > > Argentina �" Conducted a nuclear weapon research program, 
> > under military rule of 1978, at a time when it had signed, but not 
> > ratified, the Treaty of Tlatelolco. This program was abandoned 
> > after the return of civilian rule in 1983. Argentina later signed 
> > the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. [20]. However, unofficial 
> > reports and US intelligence postulate that Argentina continued some 
> > kind of nuclear weapons program during the 1980s and 1990's, mainly 
> > because of rivalry with Brazil. [21]
> > > Australia �" Following World War II, Australian defence 
> > policy premised joint nuclear weapons development with the United 
> > Kingdom. Australia provided uranium, land for weapons and rocket 
> > tests, and scientific and engineering expertise. Canberra was also 
> > heavily involved in the Blue Streak ballistic missile program. In 
> > 1955, a contract was signed with a British company to build the Hi-
> > Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR). HIFAR was considered the first step 
> > towards the construction of larger reactors capable of producing 
> > substantial volumes of plutonium for nuclear weapons. However, 
> > Australia's nuclear ambitions were abandoned by the 1960s, and the 
> > country signed the NPT in 1970 (ratified in 1973). [22]
> > > Brazil �" Military regime conducted a nuclear weapon research 
> > program (code-named "Solimões") to acquire nuclear weapons in 1978, 
> > in spite of having ratified the Treaty of Tlatelolco in 1968. When 
> > an elected government came into power in 1985, though, the program 
> > was ended.[23] On July 13, 1998 President Fernando Henrique Cardoso 
> > signed and ratified both the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) 
> > and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), denying that Brazil 
> > had developed nuclear weapons.[24]
> > > Egypt �" Had a nuclear weapon research program from 1954 to 
> > 1967. Egypt signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. [25]
> > > Nazi Germany �" During World War II, Germany, under Nazi 
> > rule, researched possibilities to develop a nuclear weapon. However 
> > adequate resources were not invested into the effort and the project 
> > was found to be many years from completion by the end of the war. 
> > The research site was also sabotaged by the British spies and 
> > Norwegian partisans which slowed down their research (see Norwegian 
> > heavy water sabotage). Historian Rainer Karlsch, in his 2005 book 
> > Hitlers Bombe, has suggested that the Nazis may have tested some 
> > sort of "atom bomb" in Thuringia in the last year of the war; it 
> > may have been a radiological weapon rather than a fission weapon), 
> > though little reliable evidence of this has surfaced. (See: German 
> > nuclear energy project) Germany is now a signatory to the Nuclear 
> > Non-Proliferation Treaty. Although it has an advanced science and 
> > technology infrastructure and would be capable of creating a nuclear 
> > weapons program (and could probably be considered a "nuclear
> > > capable" state), the government has decided to decrease even the 
> > civil use of nuclear energy.
> > > Iraq �" Signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Had a 
> > nuclear weapon research program during the 1970s and 1980s. In 1981, 
> > Israel destroyed Iraqi nuclear reactor Osiraq. In 1996, the UN's 
> > Hans Blix reported that Iraq had dismantled or destroyed all of 
> > their nuclear capabilities. In 2003, the United States invaded Iraq, 
> > charging that there was evidence the nation had "weapons of mass 
> > destruction" that likely included some form of nuclear program. 
> > However in 2004 the Duelfer Report concluded Iraq's nuclear program 
> > was terminated in 1991.[26]
> > > Imperial Japan �" Japan conducted research into nuclear 
> > weapons during World War II though made little headway.[27] (see 
> > Japanese atomic program). Japan signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation 
> > Treaty. While Japan has the technological capabilities to develop 
> > nuclear weapons in a short time there is no evidence they are doing 
> > so. Japan's constitution forbids it from producing nuclear weapons 
> > and the country has been active in promoting non-proliferation 
> > treaties. There exists some suspicion that nuclear weapons may be 
> > located in US bases in Japan.[28]
> > > Libya �" Signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. On 
> > December 19, 2003, Libya admitted having had a nuclear weapon 
> > program and simultaneously announced its intention to end it and 
> > dismantle all existing Weapons of Mass Destruction to be verified by 
> > unconditional inspections.[29]
> > > Philippines �" Signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, 
> > but the Philippines started its nuclear research program in 1958, 
> > creating the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) thru 
> > Republic Act 2067 (Science Act of 1958) enacted by Congress to 
> > undertake research and development activities in the peaceful use of 
> > nuclear energy. The government built one facility in Quezon City for 
> > nuclear research which consists of a live nuclear rector and during 
> > the early 1980s, under the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos, the 
> > government built its first nuclear power plant, the Bataan Nuclear 
> > Power Plant in Bataan province in the main island of Luzon, but was 
> > never used because of the change of government under the Corazon 
> > Aquino administration. Under the present 1987 Philippine 
> > Constitution, any kind of nuclear materials are banned from 
> > Philippine soil.
> > > Poland �" Nuclear research began in Poland in the early 
> > 1960s, with the first controlled nuclear fission reaction being 
> > achieved in late 1960s. During the 1970s further research resulted 
> > in the generation of fusion neutrons through convergent shockwaves. 
> > In the 1980s research focused on the development of micro-nuclear 
> > reactions, and was under military control. Currently Poland operates 
> 
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