Apr 22, 2006 06:44 AM
Thanks (see below).
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, in his 1751 "Discourse on the Sciences and Arts", shows that the development of technical and intellectual skills, without the development of wisdom/goodness, is less than useless to the progress of humanity.
He discusses WHAT DO WE DO WITH OUR KNOWLEDGE, and then comes back to ancient Athens for ethical inspiration and social consciousness.
Nowadays, we have, like in the 18th century a great intellectual expansion with an equally great expansion of violence, wars, corruption, social injustice and environmental destruction.
In the theosophical movement, very synchronistically, we have a lot of people thinking that Theosophy has nothing to do with Ethics!
Yet good wheather always succeeds tempests/storms and we can prepare better times in small scale by our actions.
Best regards, Carlos.
Data:Sat, 22 Apr 2006 00:34:23 -0700 (PDT)
Assunto:[Spam] Re: Theos-World Re: While we debate the past
> Technology is a result of intellectual evolution. In itself it is neither good or bad, a product if you like. Unfortunately man has not evolved morally to ensure that it is only used for the improvement of humanity. I cannot see this happening until our morality evolves at the same rate as our intellectuality. Sad, but true, I fear.
> Vincent wrote: Technological advancement is reflective of human evolution. There
> is a direct correlation between intellect and ballistic efficiency.
> --- In email@example.com, Cass Silva wrote:
> > Thought you might all find this interesting.Cass
> > Estimated worldwide nuclear stockpiles The following is a list of
> nations that have admitted the possession of nuclear weapons, the
> approximate number of warheads under their control in 2002, and the
> year they tested their first weapon. This list is informally known
> in global politics as the "Nuclear Club". Note that with the
> exception of Russia and the United States (which have subjected
> their nuclear forces to independent verification under various
> treaties) these figures are estimates, in some cases quite
> unreliable estimates. Also, these figures represent total warheads
> possessed, rather than deployed. In particular, under the SORT
> treaty thousands of Russian and US nuclear warheads are in inactive
> stockpiles awaiting processing. The contained radioactive fuel can
> then be recycled for use in nuclear reactors that drive nuclear
> power plants and some military submarines and warships.
> > From a high of 65,000 active weapons in 1985, there were about
> 20,000 active nuclear weapons in the world in 2002. Many of
> the "decommissioned" weapons were simply stored or partially
> dismantled, not destroyed.
> > World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by
> color. Red: Five "nuclear weapons states" from the NPT. Dark orange:
> Other known nuclear powers. Yellow: States suspected of having
> possession of, or suspected of being in the process of developing,
> nuclear weapons and/or nuclear programs. Purple: States which at one
> point had nuclear weapons and/or nuclear weapons research programs.
> Green: Other states capable of developing nuclear weapons within
> several years if the decision to do so were made.
> > Declared nuclear weapons states Country Warheads active/total*
> Year of first test United States 5,735/9,960 1945
> ("Trinity") Russia (formerly the Soviet Union) 5,830/16,000
> 1949 ("RDS-1") United Kingdom <200 1952 ("Hurricane")
> France 350 1960 ("Gerboise Bleue") People's Republic of China
> 400 1964 ("596") India 40-50 1974 ("Smiling Buddha")
> Pakistan 24-48 1998 ("Chagai-I") North Korea 0-10 none
>  *All numbers are estimates from the Natural Resources Defense
> Council, published in the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, unless
> other references are given. If differences between active and total
> stockpile are known, they are given as two figures separated by a
> forward slash. If no specifics are known, only one figure is given.
> Stockpile number may not contain all intact warheads if a
> substantial amount of warheads are scheduled for but have not yet
> gone through dismantlement; not all "active" warheads are deployed
> at any
> > given time. When a spread of weapons is given (e.g., 0-10), it
> generally indicates that the estimate is being made on the amount of
> fissile material which has likely been produced, and the amount of
> fissile material needed per warhead depends on estimates of a
> country's proficiency at nuclear weapon design.
> > 
> > States that have tested a nuclear weapon
> > An early stage in the "Trinity" fireball.
> > The United States developed the first atomic weapons during
> World War II out of the fear that Nazi Germany would first develop
> them. It tested its first nuclear weapon in 1945 ("Trinity"), and
> remains the only country to have used nuclear weapons against
> another nation, during the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
> (see: Manhattan Project). It was the first nation to develop the
> hydrogen bomb, testing it ("Ivy Mike") in 1952 and a deployable
> version in 1954 ("Castle Bravo").
> > The USSR tested its first nuclear weapon ("Joe-1") in 1949, in
> a crash project developed partially with espionage obtained during
> and after World War II (see: Soviet atomic bomb project). The direct
> motivation for their weapons development was the development of a
> balance of power during the Cold War. It tested a primitive hydrogen
> bomb in 1953 ("Joe-4") and a megaton-range hydrogen bomb in 1955
> ("RDS-37"). After its dissolution in 1991, its weapons entered
> officially into the possession of Russia.
> > The United Kingdom tested its first nuclear weapon
> ("Hurricane") in 1952, drawing largely on data gained while
> collaborating with the United States during the Manhattan Project.
> Its program was motivated to have an independent deterrence against
> the USSR, while also remaining relevant in Cold War Europe. It
> tested its first hydrogen bomb in 1957.
> > France tested its first nuclear weapon in 1960, also as an
> independent deterrence and to retain perceived Cold War relevance
> (see: Force de frappe). It tested its first hydrogen bomb in 1968.
> > The People's Republic of China tested its first nuclear
> weapon in 1964, much to the surprise of Western intelligence
> agencies. It had long sought assistance in becoming a nuclear power
> from an uneasy USSR, but assistance stopped after the Sino-Soviet
> split and the weapon was developed as a deterrent against both the
> USA and the USSR. It tested its first hydrogen bomb in 1967 at Lop
> Nur. The country is currently thought to have had a stockpile of 400
> warheads since the early 1980s, though with considerably fewer than
> this actually deployed.
> > An Indian Agni-II intermediate range ballistic missile displayed
> at the Republic Day Parade 2004. (Photo: AntÃ´nio Milena/ABr)
> > India tested a "peaceful nuclear device", as it was described
> by Indian government, in 1974 ("Smiling Buddha"), the first test
> developed after the creation of the NPT, and created new questions
> about how civilian nuclear technology could be diverted secretly to
> weapons purposes (dual-use technology). It appears to have been
> primarily motivated as a deterrent against China. It tested
> weaponized nuclear warheads in 1998 ("Operation Shakti"), including
> a hydrogen bomb (though the yield of this device is debated with
> some speculation that the secondary fusion stage failed to ignite).
> In July 2005, it was officially recognized by the United States as
> a "responsible nuclear" state and agreed to full nuclear cooperation
> between the two nations. This is seen as an "official" entry into
> the nuclear club of the above nations.
> > Pakistan covertly developed its nuclear weapons over many
> decades with active Chinese assistance, beginning in the late 1970s.
> It is contended that Pakistan began its nuclear development programs
> in response to India's nuclear device. It is unknown when Pakistan
> began its nuclear development projects, but by the 1980s it was
> suspected of having successfully developed nuclear warheads.
> However, this was to remain speculative until 1998 when Pakistan
> conducted its first nuclear tests at the Chaghaii hills, a few days
> after India conducted its own tests.
> > 
> > Suspected nuclear states Countries believed to have at least one
> nuclear weapon, or programs with a realistic chance of producing a
> nuclear weapon in the near future:
> > On October 5, 1986, the British newspaper The Sunday Times ran
> Mordechai Vanunu's story on its front page under the
> headline: "Revealed ï¿½" the secrets of Israel's nuclear arsenal."
> > Israel - Israel is not a member of the Nuclear Non-
> Proliferation Treaty and refuses to officially confirm or deny
> having a nuclear arsenal, or to having developed nuclear weapons, or
> even to having a nuclear weapons program. Although Israel claims
> that Dimona is a "research reactor," no scientific reports based on
> work done there have ever been published. Extensive information
> about the program in Dimona was also disclosed by technician
> Mordechai Vanunu in 1986. Imagery analysts can identify weapon
> bunkers, mobile missile launchers, and launch sites in satellite
> photographs. It is believed to possess nuclear weapons by the
> International Atomic Energy Agency. Israel may have tested a nuclear
> weapon along with South Africa in 1979 (see Vela Incident).
> According to the Natural Resources Defense Council and the
> Federation of American Scientists, they may possess 300-400 weapons,
> a figure which would put them above the median in the declared list.
> > North Korea - On January 10, 2003 North Korea withdrew from
> the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. In February 2005 they claimed
> to possess functional nuclear weapons, though their lack of a test
> has led many experts to question whether or not they have a working
> > 
> > States suspected of having clandestine nuclear programs The
> question of whether individual states without nuclear weapons are
> trying to develop them is often a controversial one. Accusations of
> clandestine nuclear programs are often vehemently denied, and may be
> politically motivated themselves, or simply erroneous. Below are
> countries who have been accused by a number of governments and
> intergovernmental agencies as currently attempting to develop
> nuclear weapons technology who are not suspected as yet having
> developed it.
> > At the Uraniums Conversion Facility in Isfahan, Iran, yellowcake
> is converted into uranium hexafluoride as part of Iran's nuclear
> fuel cycle, which has been alleged to be part of a clandestine
> attempt to develop nuclear weapons.
> > Iran - Iran signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and
> says its interest in nuclear technology, including enrichment, was
> for civilian purposes only (a right guaranteed under the treaty),
> but the CIA and many other western countries suspect that this may
> be a cover for a nuclear weapons program, claiming that Iran has
> little need to develop nuclear power domestically and that it has
> consistently chosen nuclear options which were dual-use technology
> rather than those which could only be used for power generation.
> The Iranian Foreign Minister Kamal Kharrazi stated on the intentions
> of his country's nuclear ambitions: "Iran will develop nuclear power
> abilities and this have to be recognized by the treaties." As of
> February 4, 2006, the International Atomic Energy Agency referred
> Iran to the United Nations Security Council in response to Western
> concerns on their possible nuclear programs. On April 11, 2006,
> Iran's president announced that the country had
> > successfully enriched uranium to reactor-grade levels for the
> first time.
> > 
> > States formerly possessing nuclear weapons Nuclear weapons have
> been present in many nations, often as staging grounds under control
> of other powers. However, in only a few instances have nations given
> up nuclear weapons after being in control of them; in most cases
> this has been because of special political circumstances. The fall
> of the USSR, for example, left many former Soviet-bloc countries in
> possession of nuclear weapons.
> > Ukraine - signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Ukraine
> inherited about 5,000 nuclear weapons when it became independent
> from the USSR in 1991, making its nuclear arsenal the third-largest
> in the world. By 1996, Ukraine had voluntarily disposed of all
> nuclear weapons within its territory, transferring them to Russia.
> > Belarus ï¿½" Belarus had 81 single warhead missiles stationed
> in their territory after the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991. They
> were all returned to Russia by 1996. Belarus signed the Nuclear Non-
> Proliferation Treaty.
> > Kazakhstan ï¿½" Kazakhstan inherited 1,400 nuclear weapons from
> Soviet Union, returned them all to Russia by 1995. Signed the
> Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
> > South Africa ï¿½" Produced six nuclear weapons in the 1980s but
> disassembled them in the early 1990s, and is thus the only nation
> known to have willingly given up nuclear status after developing
> their own weapons. Possibly tested a low yield device in 1979,
> perhaps with Israel, over the southern oceans in the Vela Incident.
> Signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
> > 
> > States formerly possessing nuclear programs These are nations
> known to have initiated serious nuclear weapons programs, with
> varying degrees of success. All of them are now regarded as
> currently no longer actively developing, or possessing, nuclear
> arms. All of the listed countries (or their descendants) signed the
> Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
> > Argentina ï¿½" Conducted a nuclear weapon research program,
> under military rule of 1978, at a time when it had signed, but not
> ratified, the Treaty of Tlatelolco. This program was abandoned
> after the return of civilian rule in 1983. Argentina later signed
> the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. . However, unofficial
> reports and US intelligence postulate that Argentina continued some
> kind of nuclear weapons program during the 1980s and 1990's, mainly
> because of rivalry with Brazil. 
> > Australia ï¿½" Following World War II, Australian defence
> policy premised joint nuclear weapons development with the United
> Kingdom. Australia provided uranium, land for weapons and rocket
> tests, and scientific and engineering expertise. Canberra was also
> heavily involved in the Blue Streak ballistic missile program. In
> 1955, a contract was signed with a British company to build the Hi-
> Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR). HIFAR was considered the first step
> towards the construction of larger reactors capable of producing
> substantial volumes of plutonium for nuclear weapons. However,
> Australia's nuclear ambitions were abandoned by the 1960s, and the
> country signed the NPT in 1970 (ratified in 1973). 
> > Brazil ï¿½" Military regime conducted a nuclear weapon research
> program (code-named "SolimÃµes") to acquire nuclear weapons in 1978,
> in spite of having ratified the Treaty of Tlatelolco in 1968. When
> an elected government came into power in 1985, though, the program
> was ended. On July 13, 1998 President Fernando Henrique Cardoso
> signed and ratified both the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)
> and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), denying that Brazil
> had developed nuclear weapons.
> > Egypt ï¿½" Had a nuclear weapon research program from 1954 to
> 1967. Egypt signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. 
> > Nazi Germany ï¿½" During World War II, Germany, under Nazi
> rule, researched possibilities to develop a nuclear weapon. However
> adequate resources were not invested into the effort and the project
> was found to be many years from completion by the end of the war.
> The research site was also sabotaged by the British spies and
> Norwegian partisans which slowed down their research (see Norwegian
> heavy water sabotage). Historian Rainer Karlsch, in his 2005 book
> Hitlers Bombe, has suggested that the Nazis may have tested some
> sort of "atom bomb" in Thuringia in the last year of the war; it
> may have been a radiological weapon rather than a fission weapon),
> though little reliable evidence of this has surfaced. (See: German
> nuclear energy project) Germany is now a signatory to the Nuclear
> Non-Proliferation Treaty. Although it has an advanced science and
> technology infrastructure and would be capable of creating a nuclear
> weapons program (and could probably be considered a "nuclear
> > capable" state), the government has decided to decrease even the
> civil use of nuclear energy.
> > Iraq ï¿½" Signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Had a
> nuclear weapon research program during the 1970s and 1980s. In 1981,
> Israel destroyed Iraqi nuclear reactor Osiraq. In 1996, the UN's
> Hans Blix reported that Iraq had dismantled or destroyed all of
> their nuclear capabilities. In 2003, the United States invaded Iraq,
> charging that there was evidence the nation had "weapons of mass
> destruction" that likely included some form of nuclear program.
> However in 2004 the Duelfer Report concluded Iraq's nuclear program
> was terminated in 1991.
> > Imperial Japan ï¿½" Japan conducted research into nuclear
> weapons during World War II though made little headway. (see
> Japanese atomic program). Japan signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation
> Treaty. While Japan has the technological capabilities to develop
> nuclear weapons in a short time there is no evidence they are doing
> so. Japan's constitution forbids it from producing nuclear weapons
> and the country has been active in promoting non-proliferation
> treaties. There exists some suspicion that nuclear weapons may be
> located in US bases in Japan.
> > Libya ï¿½" Signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. On
> December 19, 2003, Libya admitted having had a nuclear weapon
> program and simultaneously announced its intention to end it and
> dismantle all existing Weapons of Mass Destruction to be verified by
> unconditional inspections.
> > Philippines ï¿½" Signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty,
> but the Philippines started its nuclear research program in 1958,
> creating the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) thru
> Republic Act 2067 (Science Act of 1958) enacted by Congress to
> undertake research and development activities in the peaceful use of
> nuclear energy. The government built one facility in Quezon City for
> nuclear research which consists of a live nuclear rector and during
> the early 1980s, under the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos, the
> government built its first nuclear power plant, the Bataan Nuclear
> Power Plant in Bataan province in the main island of Luzon, but was
> never used because of the change of government under the Corazon
> Aquino administration. Under the present 1987 Philippine
> Constitution, any kind of nuclear materials are banned from
> Philippine soil.
> > Poland ï¿½" Nuclear research began in Poland in the early
> 1960s, with the first controlled nuclear fission reaction being
> achieved in late 1960s. During the 1970s further research resulted
> in the generation of fusion neutrons through convergent shockwaves.
> In the 1980s research focused on the development of micro-nuclear
> reactions, and was under military control. Currently Poland operates
> the MARIA nuclear research reactor under the control of the
> Institute of Atomic Energy, in Åšwierk near Warsaw. Poland signed
> the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and officially possess no
> nuclear weapons.
> > Romania ï¿½" Signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in
> 1970. In spite of this, under Nicolae CeauÅŸescu, in the 1980s,
> Romania had a secret nuclear-weapons development program, that was
> stopped after the overthrow of CeauÅŸescu in 1989. Now Romania runs
> a nuclear power plant of two reactor units (with three more under
> construction) built with Canadian support. It also mines and
> enriches its own uranium for the plant and has a research program.
> > South Korea ï¿½" Began a nuclear weapons program in the early
> 1970s, which was believed abandoned after signing NPT in 1975.
> However there have been allegations that program may have been
> continued after this date by the military government. In late
> 2004, the South Korean government disclosed to the IAEA that
> scientists in South Korea had extracted plutonium in 1982 and
> enriched uranium to near-weapons grade in 2000. (see South Korean
> nuclear research programs)
> > Sweden ï¿½" During the 1950s and 1960s, Sweden seriously
> investigated nuclear weapons, intended to be deployed over coastal
> facilities of an invading enemy (the Soviet Union). A very
> substantial research effort of weapon design and manufacture was
> conducted resulting in enough knowledge to allow Sweden to
> manufacture nuclear weapons. A weapon research facility was to be
> built in Studsvik. Saab made plans for a supersonic nuclear bomber,
> the A36. However Sweden decided not to pursue a weapon production
> program and signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
> > Switzerland ï¿½" Between 1946 and 1969 Switzerland had a secret
> nuclear program that came into light in 1995. By 1963 theoretical
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